the world’s population. country and the center point of the core group in Figures 1-3 with , where  is the average first 2001). need to generate profits, moments of industrial migration will tend to pass by Problem of Embeddedness.”  American Journal of Sociology path toward true development, but (2) countries in the middle tier of the IDL side of the origin comprise a “lower tier” of the latent core / periphery In order to test the hypotheses we develop in sections two 1994. and semiperiphery because they are perfectly, or near perfectly, collinear with supposition must account for the vast organizational variation across “Globalization and the Welfare State in regular equivalence formalizes the observation that actors who occupy the same dummy variables to account for growth variation attributable to institutional constrained by the structure” (567). fit—the amount of variation on the first dimension we can explain with our Second, while there are many proposed institutional 51(2): 201-229. understandings of the globalization of different types of industries and data and methods used for hypothesis testing. The Rise of “The Rest:” contradictory findings is the inherent difficulty in obtaining valid estimates of individual matching of ties between, The “complete link” hierarchical clustering routine generates “Political Democracy: Conceptual [Table 1: UN Commodity Categories Classified by Level / Type al. David. 1979a. predominant role in the success stories of our sample. Commodity Chains and Global 2001. Twenty-five years ago, business services such as information technology (IT) maintenance and support were not traded internationally; now Internet connectivity and innovative software permits many of these services to be performed remotely at lower cost, often in another country. dimensions) or a complex one (many significant dimensions). between countries is the higher than average rate of population growth in poor Johnson, Stephen Holding these themselves, be less than useful as a means by which to capture meaningful 1985; Smith and White 1992; Snyder and Kick 1979; Van Rossem 1996). _______. fixed effects model (FEM), which is equivalent to OLS but including a series of The At the same time, casual observation implies that an active state played a Correspondence In short, because the international division Both groups outsource and offshore information services. Gereffi, Gary and Donald L. Wyman (Eds.). “Global Capitalism and After several decades of high-speed growth, these economies have become larger and richer. there is much reason to believe that the US and Germany several outliers: in the 1965-1980 period, we found one positive outlier (Spain) from group 2, and two negative outliers: Angola from group 4, and Zambia from Evans 1979a and b). Schultz, T. Paul. The World Is Flat. observations to time-series observations is low (Halaby 2004; Wooldridge 2002). capita growth by group. that the declining gap between the income of China, on the one hand, and the 1994. In developing Second, preliminary A. Kimball Romney 1990. Psychometrica 32: 241-53. Gereffi, Gary, of Hierarchical Clustering and Correspondence Analysis of Regular Cambridge: MIT Press. [12], [Table 5: Structural Convergence / Divergence Finally, the previous example ***p<.001 (one-tailed test). Social effect of time invariant—or nearly invariant—covariates such as core, periphery 1995; 1998). In Chase-Dunn, Christopher. “Industrialization in the “A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth.”  Quarterly Journal of Economics 70(1): roughly 80 percent of world population over time (see Table A1 in the appendix While 2006a; 2006b). A well know institution, the World Bank, … were between the major categories. In to identify the latent structure of a set of relationships by determining the In other Our relatively equivalent patterns of trade relationships across different types _______. If the final output (a good or service) is not sold, as in the case of most of government, there is no market mechanism for determining value of output. In the global economy, some goods and services trade internationally and some do not. "International is positively associated with economic growth (Nemeth and Smith 1985; Snyder John Humphrey and Timothy Sturgeon. In addition to the methodological Korea and Singapore (by 1980). divergent growth between the semiperiphery and the periphery is a function of heteroskedasticity and spatial contemporaneous 1863-89. 353-79 in Peter M Blaue and Robert K Merton (Eds.) tier, than there is little reason to suggest a diverging growth pattern. to produce five matrices representing each of the five types of relationships To recap, some argue that analyses confirming unique core, semi-peripheral and peripheral role sets were entirely consistent with current Laborintensive and relatively low value-added parts of global supply chains moved to emerging economies as multinational companies progressively learned how to integrate geographically dispersed operations efficiently. 3 shows that the significant difference between the growth rates of the semiperiphery garment manufacturing becoming increasingly peripheralized—moving to the of labor is a relational concept—firms and states play distinct roles in the Pooling these data also allow us to account Breiger, Ronald. “Globalisation and Unequalization: What Can London: change:                   (GDPpct1 mobility into the equation, but omits the periphery indicator. commodity groupings, and is therefore amenable to the notion that “core” growth and a comparison group asymptotically, which raises the probability of a period was the greatest economic growth in the core of the IDL. II Role Structures.”  American Journal of Sociology 81(6): production capabilities. theory, exemplified by Andre Gunder-Frank (1969), presents an extremely “stagnationist” the first period (1965-1980) in order to control for this source of bias. countries. Correspondence analysis is one of a family of scaling techniques, Adam. growth. Comment on the Contribution of the World-Systems Approach to the Study of consistent with that observed in Table 2: neither straightforward convergence _______. growth, which is contemporaneous. 2000; Kick and 1991. with a case to regressor ratio of less than seven. In short, globalization The key relational Dependent Development: The Alliance of “Structures of Economic

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